World’s Coldest Capital City


Cities located in the higher latitudes are obviously going to be colder relative to cities at lower latitudes. However, that is not the only factor.

Elevation is a factor. The higher up one goes in altitude, the colder it will be. This is why Quito, Ecuador, located along the Equator, has a cooler climate than Tampa,FL,USA, located just outside of the Tropics.

If you factor in distance towards or from oceanic influences, and terrain, these are more factors to consider. Seattle, the northernmost major city in the contiguous 48 US states, has much warmer winters than Kansas City,MO. Seattle, being sheltered by the Olympic and Cascade ranges and having oceanic influences from the Alaska and California currents, keep its winters markedly warmer than Kansas City, located near the middle of the contiguous USA, with cold winter able to sweep down the nation’s midsection unfettered, with no oceanic influences nearby or mountains to block cold winds.

Now, this is about the world’s coldest capital city. Believe it not, Moscow is not the world’s coldest capital city. Neither is Greenland’s capital city. Greenland is not a sovereign nation.

Ulaanbataar, Mongolia is the world’s coldest capital city of a sovereign nation. It has an average annual temperature of -1 C (31 F). All the factors discussed in this blog entry apply to Ulaanbataar. This is a city with a high latitude(very close to 48 N), high altitude(1300 m/4300 ft above sea level), and far away from ocean influences. Temperatures in this city can drop as low as -45 C in the winter. Considering that -40 is the same at both Centigrade and Fahrenheit, that is extreme.

And thus, how geography and weather are connected.


Hurricane, Typhoon, Cyclone: What’s The Difference?


Yes, we hear these terms on weather forecasts, those tropical storms that we see causing much havoc. Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones. Three different weather terms. What is the difference between these three?

Well, not much, except where they take place. Such storms in the Indian Ocean are known as cyclones. Such storms occurring in North America are called hurricanes. In East Asia, they are called cyclones.

Watch the video below to learn about this.

The Normandy Landings


June 6, 1944. The largest seaborne military operation would come into fruition. It would be a military operation that would alter the course of WWII, the Western Front. The Normandy region of France was under Nazi occupation at the time.  Allied forced landed on the beaches of Normandy. What would becoming known as D-Day would begin the liberation of northwest France from Nazi occupation.

With war, there is an immense amount of geography that is involved. With geography, there are maps to go along with this.


This is a naval map showing the bombardments, areas cleared of land mines, the code names of the beaches under the invasion, locations of the ships involved in the D-Day invasion, the batteries. If you look towards the far east, you can see where the city of Le Havre is.


Remember this. The invasion occurred on beaches, but it wasn’t just beaches involved. People live in places where the invasions take place. Cities, towns, that were under the occupation of the Nazis, being freed by Allied forces.  Le Havre is an important maritime city with a tradition as a seafaring city.  Le Havre was under Nazi occupation. Being a port city, the Nazis destroyed port facilities in Le Havre. Le Havre was destroyed by war.

And then there is the weather. Weather is influenced by geography, and often part of the geography. The day of the invasion was planned by many factors. Tides were a big factor. Considering the cycle of the moon, high tide was taken into consideration. A dawn invasion would be ideal. A time would be needed during the transition between low tide and high tide. And with the full moon, the moon’s illumination would also help pilots. Obstacles on the beach could be seen, and at the same time, soldiers would not deal with as much exposure during the invasion. The invasion was originally scheduled for June 4, 1944. However, high winds and heavy seas made such a task impractical.

On the day of the invasion, this was the weather map below.


To give a lesson in weather, H = High Pressure. L = Low Pressure. In the Normandy region, there was an occluded front. Notice the low pressure system between Scotland and Norway. And then notice the cold front coming from Norway and Sweden. Then notice the Azores High Pressure System off the coast of Portugal. A warm front clashing with a cold front, resulting in an occluded front in France, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany.

The invasion of Normandy proved to be the beginning of the end of the Nazis in the Western Front. So much involving geography and weather went into this invasion. Planning the invasion involved maps, geographic knowledge, knowledge of tides and weather.


Peachless in Georgia


If you go to Georgia, one thing you will quickly figure out is that it’s called “The Peach State”. It isn’t just a nickname. It is a big part of the state.  Georgia isn’t the biggest producer of peaches, but it’s among the top 4 states.

California – 620,000 tons

South Carolina – 60,800 tons

Georgia – 33,000 tons

New Jersey – 21,050


California produces 49 percent of the USA’s peaches. However, it’s the 3rd largest state in the USA. Georgia is a leading grower of peaches. And it has the climate for it. A state with a humid, subtropical climate with cool to mild winters and hot summers is climate that peaches can grow in. Peach crops are tolerant to frost. However, Georgia gets lesser amounts of cold weather compared to other regions in the USA, considering that it’s in the Southeastern USA.

This year, however, Georgia may not be a big leader in peach production. Why? WEATHER. For those who do not get the difference between weather and climate, a simple explanation. Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. Watch the video below to get a better idea.

This is what happened. Georgia had one of its warmest winters ever. Apart from the ice storm that hit the Atlanta area on 6-7 January 2017, there are many days when high temperatures reached the upper 60s/low 70s. Temperatures dropping below freezing serves to prevent blooming from taking place. Unless there is a guarantee that no killing frost will take place, it is best not to have prolonged periods of warm weather in the winter. Georgia had these prolonged periods of warm weather, and then in early March, a freeze took place. This killed half of the state’s peach crops. The plants likely bloomed too early and were not given a chance to become full-grown peaches thanks to an early March freeze.

What impact will this have? Let us start with the price of peaches. Supply and demand applies to economics, and this can be affected by things such as geography and weather. Fewer peaches, but the demand remains the same, the prices goes up. Farmers will also be at a loss. Money will be lost because of the loss of product.

Weather is different from climate. What can be grown in a geographic area is often determined by climate. Weather, on the other hand, isn’t as certain.

Photo by WABE 90.1

Leonardo DiCaprio, climate change, and a geography lesson.

Leonardo DiCaprio is very much into the environment. It is understandable that he would have concerns about climate change. For this reason, he served as a United Nations representative on climate change.

It is also important to educate one’s self about geography, weather, and climate. Leonardo DiCaprio was in Calgary,Alberta,Canada filming “The Revenant”. He noticed there was alot of snow, and then a warm gust of wind melted it. He said he was told this never happened in Alberta.


This is why more people need to learn geography.

Location of Calgary.


Calgary is located 50 miles(80 km) east of the Rocky Mountains, on the leeward side. This is the area of Canada where chinooks occur the most. It is a local wind. This phenomenon frequently occurs in places on the leeward side of the Rockies. This is even mentioned in National Geographic.

This video below will show how the chinook wind(also known as foehn) works.


It is also important to understand the difference between weather and climate. Weather is what takes place in the short term. Climate is long term. Video below will explain.


This is not to say that climate change isn’t an issue. This is to say that in order to understand things like climate change, and local weather, you must learn geography.